Lac Surprise Gold Property
The Lac Surprise gold property, located within one of Québec’s more important gold- copper mining and mineral exploration camps, is centered on regional structures that hosted gold/ copper mines historically and are currently the focus of a renaissance of mineral exploration activity. Prior to 2014, Northern Superior had defined several high level gold targets on the property through defining five gold grain, or gold geochemical- in- till dispersal trains and two areas of elevated gold grain and gold geochemical- in- till values. After signing an option agreement with Bold Ventures Inc. in 2014, exploration through the summer and fall of 2014 identified 7 new gold showings, 3 gold- bearing shear zones and confirmed the general structural importance of three different fault systems and associated controls on gold mineralization within the property.15 Core drilling on the Amber gold showing was successful in intersecting several gold- bearing structures associated with this showing. The information gathered from this core drill program will be critical in defining future core drill programs not only on the Amber showing but the other gold showing and shear zones identified on this property.(18)
- Northern Superior completes till sampling programs in 2010 and 2011 identifying 12 gold exploration targets on the property through the distribution and concentration of gold grains recovered from basal till samples
- Airborne and ground geophysical surveys completed in 2011 and 2012 further refine mineral targets
- Northern Superior Resources and Bold Ventures Inc. sign option agreement 14
- Northern Superior Resources and Bold Ventures Inc. announce discovery of 7 new gold showings and three gold- bearing shear zones 13
- Northern Superior Resources and Bold Ventures complete summer 2015 exploration program (see Northern Superior Resources Inc. press release, October 5th, 2015a). 22
- Northern Superior Resources and Bold Ventures announce Amber drilling results- discover new gold- bearing trend, Lac Surprise property, west- central Québec (see Northern Superior Resources Inc. press release, July 11th, 2016). 20
The Lac Surprise Property is located within NTS Map Sheets 32G/06, and 32G/07 in the Hazeur, Druillettes, and Langloiserie Townships. The Lac Surprise property is located approximately 65 km south of the town of Chibougamau, and 45 km south of the town of Chapais, Québec (Figure 1).
The property can be accessed by travelling east from Chapais along Highway 113 toward Chibougamau for approximately 10 km, then south on the all- season Barrette Sud Road (R- 1009), for approximately 50 km. A series of secondary gravel roads and trails from the main Barrette Sud road provide access to various parts of the property by 4x 4 truck, ATV or in some cases, on foot. Various parts of the property can also be accessed by boat on Lac Caopatina, Lac Surprise, Lac Phooey, and the Roy River. The property currently consists of 333 claims covering an area of approximately 18,555 hectares (Figure 2).
On June 5th, 2014, Northern Superior signed a formal option agreement with Bold Ventures Inc. (Bold) whereby Bold earn up to a 60% interest in Northern Superior’s 100% owned Lac Surprise property. Under the terms of the agreement, Bold can earn a 50% working interest in the property by spending an aggregate of $2,000,000 on exploration of the property and issuing to Northern Superior a total of 350,000 common shares of Bold all over a three year period, 50,000 shares of which were issued upon signing the agreement. Bold is obligated to spend a minimum of $500,000 on exploration of the property in the first year, at the end of which a further 50,000 common shares of Bold are issuable. The second year optional commitment is 100,000 common shares of Bold and $500,000 in exploration work. The third year optional commitment calls for $1,000,000 in exploration work on the property and the issuance of 150,000 common shares of Bold.
Bold will also hold the option to earn an additional 10% in the project by delivering a positive feasibility study within five years from the date of execution of the formal option agreement. If Bold takes up all parts of the option it will have earned a 60% interest in the property.
The Chibougamau- Chapais mining camp is located in the northeast corner of the Matagami- Chibougamau Greenstone Belt (MCGB) of the Abitibi Subprovince of the Archean Superior Province (Figure 3). The MCGB is roughly 440 km long and varies from 25 to 100 km in width2. It is bordered either to the north and south by poorly understood Archean granite and gneissic terrains. At its western extremity, the MCGB is bounded by the Kapuskasing Structural Zone. To the east, the Abitibi Subprovince is terminated by the Grenville Province, wherein the east- west stratigraphy of the belt is abruptly terminated along the Grenville Front which separates greenschist facies rocks of the MCGB from upper amphibolite facies rocks of the Grenville Province. Post metamorphic diabase dykes belonging to the Abitibi swarm have intruded all other lithologies and are dated by Allard et al. (1985) at 1230 Ma.
The geology of the Chibougamau- Chapais district consists of two Archean age volcanic and volcano-sedimentary lithologies: the Roy Group and Opemisca Group10. The Roy Group is comprised of the Obatogamau, Waconichi, Gilman, Blondeau, and Bordeleau Formations which represent a 7- 10 km thick sequence composed primarily of submarine basalt flows overlying a basement of tonalitic gneiss16. The formations of the Roy Group have been intruded by a number of mafic to ultramafic sills. The Opemisca Group lies uncomfortably on the Roy Group, and is comprised of Hauy, Stella, Daubree, and Caopatina Formations. The formations of the Opemisca Group are typically comprised of variable sequences of conglomerate, sandstone, argillite, and in some cases minor volcanics11. Of these formations, the Obatogamau formation of the Roy Group and the Caopatina formation of the Opemiska Group exist on the Lac Surprise Property.
The volcanics and associated sediments are intruded by a series of large granitoid plutons and septa of probable basement16 which influence the prevailing tectonic fabric of the district, typified by alternating greenstone belts and aligned granitic plutons. Among the major late- stage felsic intrusives (batholiths) which have intruded the area, the Lac Surprise, and the Horsefly Lake stocks occur on the Lac Surprise Property, and the Hazeur Pluton occurs just NE of the property.
Mapping and structural studies by Dimroth et al. (1984) and Daigneault et al. (1990) indicate four district structural events that impacted the structural evolution of the Matagami- Chibougamau Greenstone Belt: 1) synvolcanic structures; 2) folds and reverse ductile faults formed during the Kenoran Orogeny; 3) northeast trending sinistral faults of probable Late Archean age reactivated during the Early Proterozoic, and 4) north- northeast trending Grenvillian faults.
Stratigraphy and Lithologies
The Lac Surprise property is underlain by formations of the Southern Caopatina Segment (SCS) of the Matagami- Chibougamau Greenstone belt. Chown et al., (1990) describe the SCS as being comprised of an extensive basalt plain with small interspersed volcanic centres (Obatogamau Formation) and capped by an early sedimentary sequence (Caopatina Formation) (Figure 4). Small contemporaneous felsic volcanic flows appear within, and superimposed on the mafic volcanic sequence.
The Obatogamau Formation is comprised of primarily tholeiitic basalts, typically 3- 5 km thick, and has been recognized for a lateral distance of 150 km (east to the Grenville Front6), west to Miquelon9. Intercalated gabbro sills are common between individual basalt flows, and typically range in thickness from a few meters up to more than 300 m1. The Obatogamau formation is intruded by the large Hazeur Pluton, located 1 km northeast of the Surprise claim block and the Surprise Pluton, which occupies the central area of the Property and is reported to be tonalitic in composition. Quartz eye tonalitic rocks observed at many locations west of Lac Phooey are believed to be associated with the latter, which would extend its limits westerly and well beyond those illustrated on government maps. Another circular- shaped late- stage felsic intrusion is reported to underlie the southwest corner of the Lac Surprise property. This intrusion, known as the Horsefly Lake stock is illustrated on various government maps and proposed to be granodioritic in composition.
Numerous outcrops of schistosed felsic intrusive observed west of Lac Phooey during the 2014 field season, are more tonalitic in composition and would represent the western extension of the Lac Surprise Batholith. The Caopatina Formation represents a 1- 2 km thick volcaniclastic sedimentary unit, locally interstratified by primary ash flow tuffs5. The primary lithological units are conglomerate, sandstone, and argillite which represent material deposited into a sedimentary basin. Chown et al. (1990) describe thick sequences of thin to medium- bedded volcaniclastic sandstone as being deposited from turbidity currents, while the argillite represents pelagic deposition from sediment settling through a water column. Massive, stratified, and graded bedded conglomerates suggest deposition from high- density turbidity currents or massive debris flows representing increasing proximity to closer to a shelf/ grade.
The paleotectonic evolution of the SCS is described by Chown et al. (1990) in three subsequent phases: 1) early extensive subaqueous basaltic plain; 2) development of central volcanic complexes, and emplacement of synvolcanic plutons; and 3) erosion of the volcanic centres with deposition in sedimentary basins.
Excluding the intrusions described above, the following kilometre- to multi- kilometre scale wide lithological assemblages have been observed or are reported from north to south across the property:
• An assemblage of felsic volcanics and pyroclastics, intercalated with sediments including iron formations in the northern portion of the property;
• An assemblage of felsic volcanics and pyroclastics (mostly tuffs) intercalated with subordinate mafic volcanics in the central part of the property; and
• An assemblage of mafic volcanics and gabbroic to dioritic intrusives with intercalated tonalitic and quartz- porphyry dykes/ sills in the southern portion of the property.
Deformation in the Lac Surprise area is predominantly a result of the Kenoran Orogeny which was responsible for the formation of large- scale folding and the overall regional schistosity. The age of deformation of the Abitibi Belt is considered to be 2695 – 2700 Ma with corresponds to the Shedandowan event of the Kenoran Orogeny. Chown et al. (1990) report that the actual age of deformation in the Northern Abitibi (i.e. Lac Surprise area) is poorly defined, although ages of syntectonic plutons are similar to those of the Southern Abitibi. Lead- dating of east- west trending shear-hosted mineral deposits in the Chibougamau region as coincide with this range for timing of deformation.
The structural history of the Lac Surprise property can be subdivided into four Archean events of faulting and deformation (D0 to D3) and one Proterozoic event (D4; Leclerc, 2012):
• D0: Synvolcanic and synmagmatic structures of limited extent (150 m width). Generally northwest- north and northeast- trending;
• D1: North- trending tight to isoclinal folds (F1);
• D2: Main north- south shortening event characterized by east- trending foliation and isoclinal F2 folds, and reverse east- trending shear zones, dextral northwest trending shear zones, and later sinistral northeast- trending shear zones. The most important of these east- west structures on the Lac Surprise property is the Doda Fault and the Opiwica- Guercheville Deformation Zone (OGDZ). The Doda Fault is located in the Druillettes Syncline, developed near the contact of the Obatogamau and Caopatina formations. It has been noted by Chown et al. (1990), that compared to other east-west faults in the Chibougamau area (i.e. Kapunapotagen, Faribault and Lac Sauvage Faults), the deformation along the Doda Fault demonstrates a much more complex strain history since the variability in the attitude of the stretching lineation and variable contradicting kinematic indications5. A southeast- trending branch of the OGDZ extends south of the Hazeur Pluton onto the Lac Surprise property which is represented by an east-west trending high strain zone with a prominent sub- horizontal stretching lineation;
• D3: Northeast- trending dextral shear zones that predate Proterozoic dykes; and
• D4: Reactivation of northeast- trending shear zones and development of north- northeast trending faults during the Grenville orogeny.
With regard to the “east- west” Doda Deformation Zone observed at many locations especially north of Lac Surprise, the orientation of the tectonic fabric actually ranges between azimuth 090° and 110° at most locations, with local variations to as much as 120° to 130°. As a result of the extensive field work completed during the 2014 work program, two new strong tectonic features have been recognised on the Lac Surprise property; these are:
• A 500 to 600 m- wide corridor of intermittent strong east- west shearing in the southwest part of the property. Designated in 2014 as the Amber Area, this deformation zone is parallel to the Doda Lake Deformation Zone and has yielded several new and exciting gold showings. The dominant tectonic fabric observed on outcrops and in 2014 trenches also commonly ranges 100°- 110° with local variations to 120°- 130°. These variations may be the result of drag folding (warping) against northeast- trending regional faults which are numerous on the property; or folding along the east- west tectonic fabric. Displacements of the gold- bearing 100°- 110° trending Amber shear and other parallel shears may have occurred locally as a result of the north northeast- trending faults and will have to be considered during future efforts to trace the extensions of each shear further to the west northwest and east southeast; and
• Also in the southwest part of the property, a 1.0 km- wide corridor of moderate to strongly developed pervasive schistosity trending east northeast to northeast, consistently ranging from between 050° to 070°. This tectonic fabric has been observed in numerous outcrops west of Lac Phooey, but only weakly anomalous gold has been uncovered in this area. This fault system has also been observed in the Amber gold showing area in 1 to 2 m- wide shears striking 050° hosting highly anomalous gold mineralization.
Exploration Summary, Amber Showing, 2015
During the summer of 2015 Bold initiated an exploration program. The purpose of the program was to: a) advance the understanding of structural controls for gold mineralization on the property; and b) define specific core drill targets at the Amber showing. The program consisted of four components: 1) establishing a cut and chained grid totalling 28.85 km, consisting of 22.7 km of cross lines and 6.1 km of tie lines cut perpendicular to the cross line, station spacing 25m; 2) completion of a “B: horizon soil sampling program (918 samples, 25m stations); 3) prospecting and outcrop sampling (approximately 50 samples); and 4) completion of a “Frequency Domain” induced polarization (I.P.) survey along all of the cross and tie lines within the cut and chained grid (see Northern Superior press release, June 10th, 2015b).
The exploration program was successful in identifying three main mineralized zones trending generally east to west across the area associated with the Amber showing. These were zones consist of: 1) a northern zone at least 400m long and up to 300 m wide, consisting of heavily disseminated sulphides at or near surface; 2) a central zone at least 1100m long consisting of semi- massive to massive sulphides at or near surface; and 3) a southern zone at least 1100m long consisting of disseminated to locally semi- massive or massive sulphides at or near surface (see Northern Superior press release, October 5th, 2015a).23
Exploration Summary, Amber Showing 2016
During the spring of 2016 Bold initiated a 1,500m diamond drill program, the goal of which was to test showings and IP trends identified at the Amber Zone for gold mineralization (see Northern Superior press release, May 3rd, 2016c).21 The drill program was successful by establishing: 1) that IP chargeability highs coincident with gold- in- soil anomalies are good indicators of underlying gold mineralization and provide a reliable exploration tool to generate future drilling programs; 2) that the gold- bearing feldspar porphyry in the south IP geophysical trend at the Amber showing continues at depth and is open; 3) a new gold- bearing horizon discovered within the central IP trend and appears to continue east beyond the Amber IP grid within the Lac Surprise property; and 4) that several different types of lithologies can be mineralized with gold as long as deformation in the form of shearing and/ or quartz- carbonate sulphide veining and fracturing are present- emphasizing the relationship between gold mineralization and structural controls (see Northern Superior press release, July 11th, 2016b; Armstrong and Kilbourne, 2016).
A 10 line-km IP and Magnetic survey over the Black Phoenix area of the Lac Surprise property was initiated in the fall of 2016 (see Northern Superior press release, August 25th, 2016a).19 This area is the source of three gold grain-in-till and one gold geochemical-in-till dispersal train(s). In addition, prospecting completed in the Black Phoenix area yielded a grab sample containing 19.9 g/t Au, (see Northern Superior press release October 29, 2014). The gold grain and geochemical trains, and grab sample, appear to be associated with structures that extend east off the Lac Surprise property where elevated gold values in diamond drilling, including a drill intersection of 10.34m grading 4.43 g/t Au, have been reported (see Vanstar press release, June 30th, 2016).
Results of this IP and Magnetic survey will be integrated into the existing database for the property, and a diamond drilling program will be planned to test the highest priority target areas at Black Phoenix.
(1) Allard, G.O., 1982. Géologie du quart nord-ouest du Canton de Haüy, Ministère de l’Énergie et des Ressources du Québec, DPV-928, 57 p.
(2) Allard, G.O., Caty, J.L. and Gobeil, A., 1985. The Archean supracrustal rocks of the Chibougamau area. In: L.D. Ayers, P.C. Thurston, K.D. Card and W. Weber eds.; Evolution of Archean Supracrustal Sequences; Geological Association of Canada Special Paper 28, pp. 55- 63.
(3) Charbonneau, R., 2011. Till sampling program for 2010 on Lespinay, Hazeur and Lac Surprise Gold Property, Chibougamau Area, Québec; Inlandsis Consultants for Northern Superior Resources Inc., 95 p.
(4) Charbonneau, R., 2012. Follow-up till sampling program for 2011 Lac Surprise Gold Property, Chibougamau Area, Québec; Inlandsis Consultants for Northern Superior Resources Inc., 95 p.
(5) Chown, E.H., Daigneault, R., and Mueller, W. 1990. Geological setting of the eastern extremity of the Abitibi Belt: In Litho-tectonic framework and associated mineralization of the eastern extremity of the Abitibi Greenstone Belt. Edited by J. Guha, E.H. Chown, and R. Daigneault. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 2158, pp. 1- 32.
(6) Daigneault, R., and Allard, G.O., 1986. Structural evolution of the Chibougamau greenstone belt; Archean vs. Grenville tectonics. Geological Association of Canada/ Mineralogical Association of Canada, Abstracts 11, p. 61.
(7) Daigneault, R., St.-Julien, P. and Allard, G.O., 1990. Tectonic evolution of the northeast portion of the Archean Abitibi Greenstone Belt, Chibougamau Area, Québec; Canadian Journal of Earth Science, Vol. 27, pp. 1714- 1736.
(8) Dimroth, E., Archambault, G., Goulet, N., Guha, J. and Mueller W., 1984. A mechanical analysis of the Late Archean Gwillim Lake Shear Belt, Chibougamau Area, Québec; Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 21, pp. 963- 968.
(9) Gauthier, J., 1986. Geoloie de la region de Miquelon, Abitibi. Misistere de l’Energie et des Resources du Québec. DP 86- 10.
(10) Guha, J., Dubé, B., Pilote, P., Chown, E.H., Archambault, G. and Bouchard, M.A., 1988. Gold mineralization patterns in relation to the lithologic and tectonic evolution of the Chibougamau Mining District, Québec, Canada; Mineralium Deposita, Vol. 23, pp. 293-298.
(11) Leclerc F., 2012. Structural and stratigraphic controls on magmatic, volcanogenic, and shear zone-hosted mineralization in the Chapais- Chibougamau Mining Camp, Northeastern Abitibi, Canada. Economic Geology, v. 107, pp. 963- 989.
(12) MacLachlan, B. and Hannon, T., 2014. 2014 prospecting report on the Lac Surprise property – executive summary. Internal Report for Bold Ventures Inc.
(13) Northern Superior Resources Inc. and Bold Ventures Inc., 2014a. Bold Ventures continues to advance Lac Surprise gold potential. Northern Superior Press Release, 2 p.
(14) Northern Superior Resources Inc. and Bold Ventures Inc., 2014b. Bold Ventures and Northern Superior sign formal option agreement for Lac Surprise gold project in Northern Québec. Northern Superior Press Release, 2 p.
(15) Parsons, S.R.G., Tremblay, R.G., and Avery, R.W., 2015. Bold Ventures Inc., Northern Superior Resources Inc., Lac Surprise gold project 2014 exploration program, Druillettes, Hazeur, Langloiserie Townships, Chapais Area, Québec, Canada [NTS: 32G/6, 32G/7]. Internal Report, 402 p.
(16) Racicot, D., Chown, E. and Hamel, T., 1984. Plutons of Chibougamau- Desmaraisville Belt: a Preliminary Survey: In J. Guha and E. Chown, eds., Chibougamau Stratigraphy and Mineralization, The Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Special Volume 34, pp. 178- 197.
(17) Tremblay, R.J., 2014. Diamond drill hole assessment file review and compilation, Lac Surprise Property, 24 pages, Bold Ventures Inc. Internal Report; and 1:25,000 scale Compilation Map.
(18) Armstrong, T. and Kilbourne, M., 2016. Bold Ventures Inc., Northern Superior Resources Inc. Lac Surprise
Gold Property, Amber Grid Area, 2016 Spring Diamond Drill Program: Druillettes, Hazeur,
Langloiserie Townships, Chapais Area, Québec, Canada, NTS: 32G/6, 32G/7. Internal report
prepared for Bold Ventures and Northern Superior Resources, 193 p.
(19) Northern Superior Resources Inc. and Bold Ventures Inc. 2016a. Bold Ventures provides Lac Surprise
update. Northern Superior Press Release, 3 p.
(20) Northern Superior Resources Inc. and Bold Ventures Inc. 2016b. Bold Ventures and Northern Superior
Announce Amber Drilling Results- Discover New Gold Bearing Trend, Lac Surprise Property,
West- Central Québec. Northern Superior Press Release, 5 p.
(21) Northern Superior Resources Inc. and Bold Ventures Inc. 2016c. Bold Ventures Mobilizes Drill to Amber
Zone Gold Showing at the Lac Surprise Property, Chapais- Chibougamau Mining District.
Northern Superior Press Release, 3 p.
(22) Northern Superior Resources Inc. and Bold Ventures Inc. 2015a. Bold Ventures completes summer 2015
exploration program on Northern Superior’s Lac Surprise property. Northern Superior Press
Release, 4 p.
(23) Northern Superior Resources Inc. and Bold Ventures Inc., 2015b. Lac Surprise 2015 Summer Exploration.
Northern Superior Press Release, 3 p.